Menopause occurs when a woman’s ovaries naturally reduce and then stop their production of estrogen. For most women, menopause occurs between 45 and 55 years, with an average age around 51. Menstrual periods stop because without estrogen, the endometrium (inner lining of the uterus) does not become engorged with vascular tissue (in anticipation of receiving a fertilized egg/human embryo). Of course, women who have had uterine procedures like hysterectomy or uterine ablation often will stop having periods sooner. The lack of estrogen may cause other symptoms such as hot flashes and night sweats (referred to as vasomotor symptoms). About 75% of perimenopausal women get vasomotor symptoms, which may be disabling. Other symptoms include

Not too long ago, the news media contained a story about aspirin use and the risks of gastrointestinal bleeding. Aspirin has long been known to reduce the risk of developing heart disease but the advice from this item in the news recommended stopping aspirin use because of the risk of bleeding. As I watched the story that ran on a local TV station, I realized that the story was not 100% accurate and might be misleading. Today I would like to clarify the story. On April 26 of this year the

Throughout human history, epidemics and pandemics have resulted in untold suffering, localized reductions in population size, and damaged economies. Often, economic harm has caused greater loss of well-being than the infection itself. There are different categories of infectious diseases. They include: 

Pandemic – an epidemic that spreads between countries (e.g., Covid-19 was an epidemic when it was limited to China, with global spread it became a pandemic); Epidemic – sudden increase in cases

If, like me, you grew up in the 1960s, then you have stark memories of the real possibility of nuclear war. The Cuban missile crisis in 1962 was probably, as far as we know anyway, the closest we ever came to nuclear war. As kids in grammar school, we used to have bomb drills, most of which involved us either hiding under our desks or moving to the school basement. As if that would protect us from a nuclear detonation. I also remember the apartment buildings that line the boardwalk in the Beach

Prior to the industrial revolution, most people worked in the fields, meaning a suntan (in lighter-skinned individuals) carried a stigma of marking someone as working class, a peasant, or an agricultural laborer. Wealthier people by and large were not exposed to the sun, so their pallid skin marked them as a member of the monied upper class.

By 1920, most laborers had moved to indoor factories so that most white people, regardless of class, had pale skin. Perfume magnate Coco Chanel began to

The term “routine checkup” refers to a visit to a primary care physician for the purpose of maintaining wellness. They are centered around preventing illness rather than treating an active symptom or already diagnosed illness or disease. This type of visit can also be referred to as a wellness visit, preventive visit, health evaluation, or general medical examination. Although referred to as “physicals” or “annuals,” these visits do not need to include a full physical examination and do not

Brain surgery has come a long way. Evidence of brain surgery goes as far back as the Neolithic period (4500 B.C.) when the first known documented surgery was performed by making a hole in the skull by removing a portion of bone, a process called trepanation. This is still done today to remove deadly pressure on the brain, for instance to drain a subdural hematoma (bleeding on the brain) that forms as a result of head trauma. This is called a burr hole and the procedure is quite improved since

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