Literary classics, for example works by authors like Mark Twain and Robert Louis Stevenson, often give us a glimpse of medical care as it was many years ago. Take Robert Frost’s 1916 poem “Out, Out- .” It describes the traumatic death of a young boy in a farming accident. It is based on a real-life tragedy; an article from the Littleton New Hampshire Courier published in March 1910 provides the background: Raymond Tracy Fitzgerald…died…as a result of an accident by which one of his hands was badly hurt in a sawing machine. The young man…accidently hit a loose pulley, causing the saw to descend upon his hand, cutting and lacerating it badly. Raymond was taken into the house and a physician was immediately summoned, but he died very suddenly

Glaucoma is a chronic, progressive optic neuropathy characterized by damage to the optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer, both located at the back of the eye. But glaucoma is a disease of the front of the eye, or anterior chamber. The lens separates the eye into the anterior and posterior chambers. In glaucoma, aqueous humor, fluid that is found in the anterior chamber, is unable to drain from the anterior chamber, causing an elevation in intraocular pressure (IOP).


We all remember watching Gov. Cuomo and Mayor de Blasio in the early days of the COVID epidemic when they proposed temporary lockdowns to “flatten the curve.” They claimed to be “following the science.” Well, here we are, more than a year later, and we still have partial lockdowns. So, did they really follow scientific recommendations and did the lockdowns prevent COVID deaths? Growing research tells us that the answer is no. The lockdowns destroyed a booming economy, forced many small

The U.S. government created two programs to care for Americans as they get older. In 1935, FDR created the Social Security system, which was intended to be a source of income for people once they retired. In 1966, the Johnson administration created Medicare. Prior to that, most Americans did not have health care plans, especially once they left work and retired.

Both programs had a similar design, namely that workers would fund their accounts through payroll taxes while they were working and

Benign, or noncancerous, tumors come in all shapes and sizes. For example, adenomas are benign tumors that grow in glands, often in glands that control the human endocrine system. When adenomas form in endocrine glands, they often cause a hormonal imbalance which can have negative effects on the body’s hormonal functions. In addition, when adenomas grow in the brain, they displace brain tissue proving the old adage that there is no such thing as a benign brain tumor because the brain is within

Last month, the publisher (Kevin Boyle) received an email from a reader asking me to do a column about home electrocardiograph (EKG or ECG) machines. The reader specifically mentioned the KardiMobile EKG device. Before I get into that device, allow me to mention some basics about the science and technology of EKGs.

An EKG machine measures the tiny electrical currents generated in the heart before, during, and after a heartbeat. To begin a heartbeat, an electrical impulse is generated in the

Amblyopia, informally called “lazy eye,” is the leading cause of decreased vision in children. It is caused by abnormal visual development, usually in one eye and rarely in both eyes, as a child. Vision in the affected eye is decreased, causing the brain to stop communicating with that eye. This causes the affected eye to wander, or drift. The eye does not track with the “good,” or stronger eye, and eventually the affected eye wanders inward (toward the nose), or sometimes outward. The brain

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