It is estimated that 96 percent of humans will suffer from one or more headaches during their lifetime. References to headaches can be found in ancient writings like the Ebers Papyrus (dating to circa 1550 B.C.). Visual symptoms from headaches were described by Hippocrates in 400 B.C. Interest in headaches extends back as far as recorded history, and it is one of the most common complaints of patients who present for medical care. The direct and indirect socioeconomic costs of headaches to society are estimated at $14 billion per year. For reasons that are unknown, headaches are more common in women. Overall, tension-type headaches account for 40 percent of the total amount of headaches, and migraines account for 10 percent. Headaches may

Now that summer is near, I thought today would be an appropriate day to talk about some dangers of exposure to hot weather like heat exhaustion and heat stroke. In order to avoid the dangers of heat exposure, there are some common sense recommendations such as scheduling outdoor activities during the cooler morning and evening hours, wear loose-fitting, light-colored clothing, drink plenty of fluids, but avoid fluids with high sugar content or alcohol, as these can cause dehydration. If you

The diagnosis and treatment of many diseases, especially hypertension and diabetes, has been standardized across the country by the development and use of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). In 1977, the first CPG for the treatment of hypertension was formulated by the first Joint National Committee (JNC) on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. The members of the JNC1 were appointed by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and included experts from major

Unfortunately, medical errors do occur despite the best preventative efforts by healthcare providers, facilities, and malpractice insurers. Among these errors are wrong-site surgery, which includes wrong-procedure and wrong-patient (WSPEs) surgery events. The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals, known as the Joint Commission, accredits all hospitals and most outpatient surgery facilities and ensures that these facilities operate safely and correctly. One of the main goals of the

Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver that may be caused by a viral infection, medication, alcohol, and other things. Today I would like to concentrate on hepatitis A. Hepatitis A is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV) and can be transmitted by contact with the feces of an infected person. Transmission may occur by directly touching the feces of an infected person or consuming food or water that has been contaminated by fecal matter. Hepatitis B and C are not transmitted by food or feces

Anabolic steroids (i.e. testosterone) have been the most frequently abused appearance — and performance-enhancing drugs. Up until the 1980s, use of these drugs was mostly limited to athletes. However, since the 1980s, the drugs have become more widely used by men with the goal of improving appearance and building muscle mass. More recently, newer drugs called selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) have come into wider use and the use of anabolic steroids has decreased somewhat. SARMs

Genes are made of DNA. Each chromosome contains about 20,000 to 25,000 genes. Every person has two copies of each gene – one copy from each parent. Human genes are nearly identical for all humans with less than one percent being slightly different. These slightly different genes are called alleles and they contribute to each person’s unique physical appearance. Genes contain instructions for making proteins. Each cell requires thousands of proteins to work together in order for that cell to

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