Hypertension is defined as a systolic blood pressure of 140 or greater and a diastolic BP of 90 or greater. Recently, hypertension has been ranked as one of the leading causes of worldwide disability. It is estimated that one billion adults worldwide (25 percent of the population) have hypertension and this number is expected to rise. Traditional advice to those who have an elevated blood pressure has been to reduce dietary salt intake. In general, dietary salt intake is more than six grams (2400 mg) with 95 percent of the global population consuming between 7.5 and 12.5 grams of salt per day. Recent evidence has begun to cast doubt on the traditional advice to reduce salt intake to lower blood pressure.

In India, most people consume

Nearly half of adult women may experience urinary incontinence, or the involuntary leakage of urine. This condition increases with age, affecting 10 to 20 percent of all women and nearly 80 percent of elderly women residing in nursing homes. The most recent data available indicates that incontinence affects 17 percent of women over 20 and 38 percent of women over 60. Despite the fact that incontinence in women is common, it remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. Only 25 percent of affected

Today I would like to discuss a common plastic surgery procedure called a rhinoplasty, otherwise known as a “nose job.” This is a procedure that involves reshaping or resizing the nose. There are two major categories of rhinoplasty: aesthetic and functional. Aesthetic rhinoplasty involves changing the outward appearance of the nose for cosmetic reasons. The most common reasons for cosmetic rhinoplasty are a dorsal hump (a hump on the mid to upper front part of the nose), a wide tip, and a

The year 2017 marked the 50th anniversary of several important developments in medical care. In 1967, a classic study by Killup and Kimball was published regarding the care of patients admitted to New York Hospital for myocardial infarctions (heart attacks, or MIs). In the study, these patients were placed in a specialized hospital unit where they had constant monitoring of their heart rhythm. One of the greatest dangers following an MI is the sudden development of an abnormal heart rhythm, or

It is certainly no secret that smoking cigarettes is not just a poor lifestyle choice, but is also harmful and, in most cases, shortens life expectancy. Even in the 1930s, cigarettes were slangly referred to as “coffin nails.” Cigarette smoking has been linked to heart disease and cancers, the two leading causes of death in the world. Recent evidence suggests a higher cancer incidence among patients with preexisting cardiovascular disease, including heart failure and heart attacks, as compared

People with stage I hypertension (systolic BP of 140 to 159 or diastolic BP of 90 to 99) have an increased risk of death from cardiovascular events compared with people with normal blood pressure. The decision on whether or not to treat individuals with hypertension depends on a number of risk factors. These risk factors include older age, male sex, BP level, smoking, elevated lipid levels, diabetes, and a family history of premature cardiovascular disease. Poor lifestyle habits may be

Drug poisoning (overdose) deaths more than doubled in the U.S. from 2000 to 2015, while deaths from opioid overdoses more than tripled in the same period. Increases in poisoning deaths, which are classified as subsets of unintentional injuries, suicides, homicides, or events of undetermined intent, have reduced the life expectancy of non-Hispanic white individuals in the U.S. from 2000 to 2014. Overall life expectancy at birth for the general population increased from 76.8 years in 2000 to 78.8

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